2020 State Standard of Excellence
5. Data Use
Did the state or any of its agencies have data systems consistent with strong privacy protections that linked multiple administrative data sets across state agencies, and did it use those systems to improve federal, state, or local programs?
The linking of agency data allows state governments to increase the effectiveness of state services and get better results for their residents.
The Indiana Management Performance Hub (MPH), overseen by the state’s Chief Data Officer, houses the integrated Education and Workforce Development database, which brings together data from 12 state agencies, including: the Commission for Higher Education, Department of Education, Department of Health, Department of Corrections, Department of Workforce Development, and Family and Social Services Administration. In addition, MPH has created integrated databases to address pressing program and policy issues related to COVD-19, opioids, Medicaid, fiscal transparency, and other areas. MPH has been at the forefront of using data to drive decision-making for Indiana’s COVID-19 response, including a study to better understand the prevalence of the coronavirus and/or its antibodies.
A 2019 Arkansas law created the Data-Sharing and Data-Driven Decision-Making Task Force “to implement a shared services model for statewide data sharing in order to drive innovation and facilitate efficiency across state agencies, improve the delivery of services, and to better serve the citizens of this state.” In December 2019, the Task Force reported recommendations to create a statewide centralized data hub and analytics center, establish a data-sharing and data-driven decision-making subcommittee in the state legislature, and require agencies to enter into data-sharing agreements to augment data-sharing and integration efforts. A new committee was established to continue the work of the task force through December 2020.
Colorado’s Department of Public Health and Environment extended their geospatial data and resource library to encompass a wide range of COVID-19-related data, including: hospital data, incidence and epidemic curve data, outbreak data, and surveillance data. Daily state-level data keeps policymakers informed with up-to-date information on COVID-related indicators. The Department’s open data portal also maps operational community testing sites that receive COVID-19 testing resources from the state.
In 2019, the Colorado Governor’s Office and the Colorado Evaluation and Action Lab at the University of Denver co-designed the Linked Information Network of Colorado (LINC) to facilitate data sharing for research and analytics purposes as a way to improve state policies and programs. Using this data, the Lab and state agencies have collaborated on projects to improve outcomes in areas such as education, renewable energy, reentry and racial disparities in criminal justice, prenatal health, and the early childhood education workforce.
The Connecticut Departments of Education and Social Services leveraged data-sharing agreements by matching student and SNAP benefit data to automatically certify SNAP Pandemic EBT for more than 287,000 Connecticut students who receive free or reduced-price meals. This allowed the state to provide meals to 82,000 students participating in only the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program, but who do not receive food assistance through SNAP, Medicaid, or other food assistance programs. The state also partnered with food retailers to allow SNAP enrollees to use their benefits to purchase eligible food items online.
Connecticut’s statewide longitudinal data system, P20 WIN, brings together workforce, education and supportive services data to inform educational policy and practice. Created by participating agencies, it houses extensive documentation, including data-sharing agreements, a robust data management process, and a data dictionary. In 2020, P20 WIN received an expansion grant through the National Center for Education Statistics to build agency analytical capacity and to expand P20 WIN to include information from state human service agencies.
Florida’s PK-20 Education Data Warehouse provides public access to data linked across elementary and secondary education, university, and workforce outcomes. This comprehensive longitudinal data system supports the State’s Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) plan’s commitments to evidence-based practices and continuous improvement.
The Georgia Cross Agency Child Data System is an early childhood integrated data system that links data from multiple child-serving agencies. By matching longitudinal data across multiple programs and data systems, decision-makers can leverage the platform to identify service gaps, create opportunities for analysis and research, and provide an integrated and aligned approach to meet the needs of children. The system, which is guided by a policy manual, has publicly available data tools and reports.
The Illinois Department of Employment Security, Illinois Student Assistance Commission, Illinois Board of Higher Education, Illinois Community College Board, and Illinois State University have partnered to share workforce, financial aid, and university data for the Illinois’s “College2Career” resource. The integrated data platform highlights outcome metrics such as average earnings, earnings growth, and job stability for graduates of Illinois institutions of higher education. The program seeks to use these data to help Illinois students make informed education and workforce decisions.
A 2013 Kentucky law established the Kentucky Center for Statistics (KYSTATS), which collects and links high-quality, actionable data from 15 state agencies to improve education and workforce programs in the state. By providing data sets, publishing reports, and fulfilling research requests, the Center provides state-specific insights with appropriate data privacy and data access controls. It has more than 40 staff members who are dedicated to “developing reports, responding to research requests, and providing statistical data about these efforts so policymakers, agencies, and the general public can make better-informed decisions.” The Center is run by an executive director with oversight from a board composed of participating state agencies, and Center has developed a research agenda for 2020-2022 focused on issues of equity.
A 2010 Maryland law established the Maryland Longitudinal Data System Center as an independent agency to bring together education and workforce data from the Maryland Higher Education Commission, the Maryland State Department of Education, and the Maryland Department of Labor. In partnership with the University of Maryland System and under the guidance of a governing board, the Center’s 12 staff members produce a variety of publications about student performance at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary level to improve the state’s education system and guide decision-makers at all levels.
Minnesota’s Statewide Longitudinal Education Data System and Early Childhood Education Data System match administrative education and employment data from five state agencies. Together, these two systems form a P-20 education data system, which captures, analyzes, and uses student data from preschool to high school, college, and the workforce.
The Nevada P-20 to Workforce Research Data System integrates data from the state’s PK-12, higher education, and workforce agencies. The system leaves all private data behind agency firewalls and uses an algorithm to de-identify data during the matching process. A wide variety of reports provide agency leaders greater insights into Nevada’s education and workforce programs, initiatives, and outcomes.
New Jersey’s Prescription Monitoring Program integrates data from multiple state agencies, including the Department of Health, the Division of Consumer Affairs, the Office of the Attorney General, and other law enforcement bodies, to power the Overdose Data Dashboard. The Department of Health uses the dashboard to make decisions about access to medications, such as naloxone, designed to rapidly reverse opioid overdose and harm reduction services.
New Jersey partners with Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, to operate the New Jersey Education to Earnings Data System (NJEEDS), a statewide longitudinal data system designed to improve the performance of state education and workforce initiatives. NJEEDS is overseen by an executive leadership council and convenes a data stewards work group from relevant state agencies. Four state agencies also partner with Rutgers to operate the Integrated Population Health Data project to promote population health research.
A 1995 North Carolina law created the North Carolina Common Follow-up System, a longitudinal repository of workforce and education data. The system includes employment and wage data for all North Carolina workers (in areas covered by unemployment insurance) from the past 25 years, making it one of the largest sources of historical wage data in the nation. Regularly publishing operational reports and evaluation reports, the Common Follow-Up System also shares data with North Carolina Tower, which houses aggregate information on public university students, including programs of study, degrees attained, further enrollment, and wage and employment information. Together, these systems, which adhere to strict privacy protections, provide insights on the state’s education and employment outcomes.
In April 2019, Ohio’s Governor signed an executive order consolidating state data systems into the InnovateOhio Platform, which uses data as “a shared strategic asset” whose “value is multiplied when data sets are linked across programs and organizations” through data integration and management tools. The executive order created a presumption of data sharing between state agencies, except where a specific legal prohibition is identified in writing. Since its launch, InnovateOhio and the Ohio Department of Administrative Services have collaborated with state agencies to incorporate 1,600 information systems into the State’s cloud environment.
Created by a 2017 Oregon statute, the Performance Reporting Information System serves as the state’s workforce data dashboard. The system was leveraged for Oregon’s COVID-19 economic recovery response by matching customer workforce program participation against quarterly Unemployment Insurance (UI) wage records to develop monthly UI claims data. Oregon also created a dashboard, FAQ, and resource page to help residents respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. The dashboard and public health information page allows residents and state leaders to make decisions by coordinating data from hospitals, state agencies, public health providers, and the emergency management community.
In 2020, Oregon launched a Data Strategy designed to empower state agencies within the executive branch to better utilize, maintain, and share data. Outlined in three key components, the Data Strategy involves the use of data principles, data practices, and a forthcoming one to three year Action Plan for implementing the practices. The Office of the State Chief Information Officer, spearheaded by the State’s Chief Data Officer, is currently soliciting public comment on the development of the Action Plan.
Rhode Island’s Data Ecosystem supported the development and implementation of daily COVID-19 dashboards, which provide information for the governor and other state leaders to make informed decisions about the state’s response and recovery activities. The Ecosystem, managed by the Executive Office of Health and Human Services, integrates data from 15 sources through an Executive Data-Sharing Agreement among the state’s health, child welfare, and human services agencies.
The South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office maintains an integrated data system, which links individuals being served by more than 20 state agencies and other organizations. This system has facilitated program improvement efforts and numerous research studies, including a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as a part of the state’s Pay for Success initiative to improve outcomes for low-income mothers and their babies. South Carolina has continued to expand its evaluations, including an RCT on the impact of Managed Care Organizations.
In 2019, The Utah Department of Human Services instituted the Management Information Center, a team of analysts, researchers, and statisticians to integrate data from child welfare, juvenile justice, services for individuals with disabilities, behavioral health, public assistance, and public education agencies to improve the quality and outcomes of services to children, families, and individuals. The Center oversees systematic reviews of research to ensure programs are effective and evidence-driven in support of DHS’ Family First Prevention Services Act plan.
The Utah Data Research Center was created by a 2017 law to integrate data from the Utah System of Higher Education, Utah System of Technical Colleges, Utah State Board of Education, Utah Department of Health, and the Utah Department of Workforce Services. The Center has a research agenda and provides both “data products” and “data-as-a-product.” The Center has a governance structure, staff, a data dictionary, an advisory board of agency designees, an institutional review board, and a peer review process.
In 2020, Virginia utilized its existing Framework for Addiction Analysis and Community Transformation (FAACT) to share new data and provide actionable information as part of the state’s COVID-19 response. FAACT, a cross-agency, cloud-based data-sharing and analytics platform, was previously used as part of the state’s work on the opioid crisis to generate actionable insights about the contributing factors to opioid abuse, as well as to collate the most effective community responses.
Amid the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, Virginia’s workforce system launched an improved integrated data system, governed by a data trust, that improves user experience through the new Virginia Career Works Referral Portal. The related Virginia Career Works Dashboard is a data visualization tool that conveys information about labor conditions and allows agencies to make real-time, data-driven decisions. These innovative systems demonstrated a potential cost savings of more than 94% over traditional approaches.
The Washington State Department of Social and Health Services maintains an integrated client database with data from 10 state agencies, 40 separate data systems, and millions of individuals receiving services through publicly funded health and human services programs in Washington State. This data is used for rapid-cycle policy analysis, program evaluation, predictive modeling, and performance measurement to help agencies understand how health services and other factors are related to outcomes for persons served by public assistance programs. Predictive modeling and clinical decision support tools developed and maintained in the Research and Data Analysis’s integrated data environment have been used by the state’s Health Home Program, which provides intensive care management services to high-risk Medicaid beneficiaries, to improve beneficiary health outcomes and lower costs. These lower costs have resulted in tens of millions in dollars in shared savings payments from the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
The Wisconsin Early Childhood Integrated Data System integrates data from the state Departments of Children and Families, Health Services, and Public Instruction. The system links, collects, and monitors early childhood data from 11 state programs. The state engaged in an inclusive planning process to design the system, which, although not an integrated data warehouse, provides for data sharing among relevant state agencies. The system also has strong privacy protections, including an overarching memorandum of understanding and individual data-sharing agreements from the Departments of Children and Families, Health Services, and Public Instruction, which are used with each interagency data-sharing project.